A questionnaire for measuring pro sociality
With the term Prosociality we intend to mean and making reference to a way to act on behalf of others. The term “prosocial” is applied to any behavior that is intended to benefit another (see the classical definition of Eisenberg, 1986 quoted also by Dunfield 2015).
Observations conform that the acquisition of personal cognitive skills influences the future prosocial behavior. Identifying universal milestones in the development of prosocial behavior, and then identifying the underlying social cognitive correlates can help us for defining also the future impact of the personal behaviors.
The two main approaches for assessing prosocial behavior are to observe behavior directly and to measure behavioral intentions. Direct measures of prosocial behavior have been used as the main outcome of several social psychology experiments.
We are proposing a third possible way related to a biographical approach.
Following this idea, the Alice Consortium proposes a questionnaire created in cooperation with Prof. Stefano Taddei and Prof. Bastianina Contena of the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Florence .
The questionnaire has been used during the first phase of the project and the related results has been published in this link.
The Questionnaire has be considered as Open Educative Resource and can be freely used quoting the authors (F.Taddei and B.Contena and the Alice Consortium)
The questionnaire we are proposing will help the scientific community and the schools in all European Countries to create a didactical tool for supporting at the educative level, the policies and the measures and initiatives the single schools can take for developing the prosocial approach and the soft skills of the students in order to increase the level of mutual cooperation and fight the xenophobic, sexist and racist behaviors.
The questionnaire must be completely anonymous and the data must be collected and interpreted by a dedicated committee.
How the questionnaire works
The questionnaire will be based on three pillar of the prosociality : helping, sharing and comforting. These different subtypes reflect responses to three distinct negative states a) instrumental need, b) unmet material desire, and c) emotional distress. The prosocial behavior (for all subtypes) is related with three cognitive processes:
- representing the problem
- representing the solution
|Instrumental need||Unmet material desire||Emotional distress|
|Representing the problem||recognize goal directed behavior||recognize unequal access to resources||recognize negative emotional states|
|Representing the solution||correct unintended outcomes||distribute resources equally||alleviated negative emotional states|
|motivation to see the negative state alleviated||motivation to see the negative state alleviated||motivation to see the negative state alleviated|
Every scenario proposed for our questionnaire is made to represent a specific problem (in term of instrumental need, unequal access to resources or emotional distress) and to control some specific variables as rules, reputations and relations (Simpson, & Willer, 2015). The set of answers are made to measure the representation of problem (3 sentences), the representation of solution (4 sentences) and the motivation to solve the problem (3 sentences).
It is recommended to appoint experts (psychologists) to assess the results
The questionnaire is available at this link:
To access to the Storytelling page, click here.